GRIN2A is a novel Parkinson's disease modifier gene which has been identified through gene environment studies . These findings yield an important biomarker for Parkinson's disease research, prevention and treatment. The biomarker may be utilized to improve and expedite the development of certain classes of Parkinson's disease drug candidates.
Variations in the glutamate receptor gene GRIN2A have been shown to modulate the risk of developing Parkinson's disease in heavy coffee drinkers. Studies describing the association have been published in PLoS Genetics . As a biomarker GRIN2A may have important utility in clinical trials for Parkinson's disease.
Utilizing GRIN2A SNPs as biomarkers can enable targeted identification of subgroups most likely to respond to the effects of drugs such as adenosine antagonists (caffeine-like) and glutamate antagonists (GRIN2A-related). Drugs that may otherwise be overlooked due to low-modest benefit in broad populations may in fact demonstrate significant efficacy for in groups with the GRIN2A genotype variants.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. The prevalence of PD is expected to double in the next 20 years and continue to rise with the aging of the population. Current treatment, primarily L-dopa, does not slow disease progression and is associated with significant side effects.
Past epidemiological studies of persons with PD and unaffected cohorts had indicated that heavy coffee drinking was associated with a decreased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. However, the mechanism behind this finding remains unknown.
Availability for Collaboration and Licensing:
- Companies interested in utilizing GRIN2A for clinical trials can explore licensing and collaboration opportunities through Health Research, Inc.
- Additional Parkinson's disease biomarkers in the HLA region  are available for license and collaboration.
Inventors from Wadsworth Center:
Haydeh Payami, Ph.D.
Taye H. Hamza, Ph.D.
- Hamza TH, Chen H, Hill-Burns EM, Rhodes SL, Montimurro J, et al. 2011 Genome-Wide Gene-Environment Study Identifies Glutamate Receptor Gene GRIN2A as a Parkinson's Disease Modifier Gene via Interaction with Coffee.1 PLoS Genet 7(8): e1002237. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002237
- Hamza, Taye H., Zabetian, Cyrus P., Tenesa, Albert, Laederach, Alain, Montimurro, Jennifer, Yearout, Dora, Kay, Denise M., Doheny, Kimberly F., Paschall, Justin, Pugh, Elizabeth, Kusel, Victoria I., Collura, Randall, Roberts,John, Griffith, Alida, Samii, Ali, Scott, William K., Nutt, John, Factor, Stewart A., Payami, Haydeh. Common genetic variation in the HLA region is associated with late-onset sporadic Parkinson's disease: Nature Genetics Volume: 42, Pages:781–785 Year published: (2010) DOI: doi:10.1038/ng.642 Published online 15 August 2010
- Hill-Burns EM, Singh N, Ganguly P, Hamza TH, Montimurro, J, Kay DM, Yearout D, Sheehan P, Frodey K, McLear JA, Feany MB, Hanes SD, Wolfgang WJ, Zabetian CP, Factor SA, Payami, H. A genetic basis for the variable effect of smoking/nicotine on Parkinson's disease. Pharmacogenomics J, 2012 Oct 2. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2012.38 Published online 2 October 2012.
Robert L. Gallo
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